Years later, their deceit was discovered by Hippolyta. Angry at Antiope for defying her decision, Hippolyta sent Diana back to her room so that she could speak to her sister alone. Antiope reasoned with the Queen, reminding her that Ares was alive and would come for Diana some day. Hippolyta accepted this with some difficulty, and ordered Antiope to train Diana harder than any Amazon before her, until she was better than even Antiope herself, the Amazons' fiercest warrior. Thus, with the blessing of her mother, Diana formally began extensive training in all forms of Amazonian combat. Over the years, she became a formidable warrior.
After the meeting, Trevor's superior berated him for taking a woman into the war room. Morgan then introduced himself to Diana. She began to introduce herself as "Diana, Princess of Themyscira," but Trevor cut her off to maintain her secret identity, calling her "Diana Prince." Trevor then informed Morgan that he'd managed to steal Doctor Poison's notebook.
Voiced by Michelle Monaghan. Based on the story ''Justice League Origins'', where Darkseid invades earth, only to fail due to its heroes. Wonder Woman is first seen with Steve Trevor, where she is supposed to meet the president of the United States, but he isn't there. After the Mother Boxes opens up boomtubes, she defeats multiple soldiers of Apokolips, but flies to Air Force One to protect the president. After battling some opponents, she meets Superman, and from there they proceed to meet other heroes. The battle and Superman gets knocked out and is about to be made a soldier by Desaad but Batman manages to save him in time. Wonder Woman then proceeds to battle Darkseid along with the rest of the Justice League, and succsessfully sends him back throug a boomtube.
Now a mod boutique owner, the powerless Diana Prince acquired a Chinese mentor named I Ching. Under I Ching's guidance, Diana learned martial arts and weapons skills, and engaged in adventures that encompassed a variety of genres, from espionage to mythology. During this time she fought villains such as Catwoman, Doctor Cyber, the hippie gang Them!, and the campy witch Morgana.[9]

Wonder Woman was legally barred from appearing in the first few seasons of the Batman: The Brave and the Bold, but made a cameo from behind in the episode "Sidekicks Assemble!" She later made a full appearance in the final season during the episode "Scorn of the Star Sapphire!," and played a main role in the episode "Triumvirate of Terror!" In the show, she was voiced by Vicki Lewis.
Marston was an outspoken feminist, swinger, and firm believer in the superiority of women.[26] He described bondage and submission as a "respectable and noble practice". Marston wrote in a weakness for Wonder Woman, which was attached to a fictional stipulation that he dubbed "Aphrodite's Law", that made the chaining of her "Bracelets of Submission" together by a man take away her Amazonian super strength.[27][28][29]
The First Born imprisoned Wonder Woman in what remained of Olympus and ordered his forces to attack Themyscira. As they watched the confrontation, the First Born offered her a place in his goals of conquest, but she steadfastly refused, causing him to thrust a spike into her side.[46] As Diana lied mortally wounded, Eris dragged her to Themyscira, for she wanted Diana to see her home destroyed and humiliate her. Recovering her strength, Wonder Woman punched Eris down and took Zola and Zeke to Olympus. Her plan was to place Zeke on the throne, so that he could be the new king of Olympus and end the bloodshed, but before she could, Poseidon revealed his presence.[47]
In order to prove her devotion to her people, the Amazons issued a challenge to Diana, one she would have to meet in two days. In the meantime, the Justice League had tracked the insectoid queen down to a remote mountain. The League journeyed deep into the mountain and encountered the queen. Diana condemned her for the lives she has taken, but the insectoid queen replied that it was Diana’s actions, namely her throwing of the First Born into the depths of the Earth, that awoke the insectoids from their slumber.[54]
Mikos delivers Ventouras's dead son to him, presumably killed by the rebel faction. This causes him to seek revenge against the Rebels and Diana. They turn into monsters and attack Diana. Diana fights the witch's forces but is overpowered by the witch herself, but only after retrieving the scroll from Stavros who was already attacked and severely wounded. The scrolls ends up in Julia's hands, and she immediately goes to work decoding it in an effort to save Diana and discover the witch's weakness. Diana is taken to the witch's stronghold, where she is revealed to be Circe, a sorceress possessing the soul of Hecate, the moon god after they had entered into a pact to drive the world into chaos. She tells Diana what became of her aunt Antiope, who was killed by Circe herself after manipulating Antiope's husband Theseus's former wife. Circe explains to Diana that her existence is a threat to her mission, due to Diana's goal of promoting peace and equality among mankind, and therefore she must be eliminated. Circe is about to kill Diana when she is interrupted by Julia and the rebels. Julia had decoded the scroll and knew how to stave off the witch's attacks. But they are beaten by Circe and almost killed when Circe herself is suspiciously summoned off from the island by an unknown force, later revealed to be the god Hermes.
^ Lyons, Charles. "Suffering Sappho! A Look at the Creator & Creation of Wonder Woman". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2006. In October 1940, the popular women's magazine "Family Circle" published an interview with Marston entitled "Don't Laugh at the Comics," in which the psychologist discussed the unfulfilled potential of the medium.
A ho-hum end to James Robinson's ho-hum run on Wonder Woman. Most things to come out of Dark Nights: Metal have been crap and that trend continues with these Dark Gods. They are so damn generic, with titles like Mob God, and God with No Name. James Robinson used to be one of my favorite comic book writers in the 90's but he's really shit the bed the last several years. The only good thing to come of this run is that Jason's story line is finally over. That tool is pretty much useless. I'm also g ...more
Ares told Diana that he had been imprisoned by the other Gods of Olympus and bound in chains that were secured by Aphrodite through the power of her love. He also told her that years ago, Phobos and Deimos had implanted false memories of Themyscira into her mind, and these had caused her to imagine aspects of her past that had never happened in reality. Meanwhile, Phobos and Deimos entered Themyscira and battled with the Amazons. Diana knew what she had to do, and called Ares to unite her with Phobos and Deimos. He teleported them to her, and using her Lasso of Truth, Wonder Woman bound them through the power of her unconditional love for them, as Aphrodite had done to Ares. With the twin gods defeated, Diana attempted to leave Ares' prison along with Veronica and Izzy, however Izzy's essence had been attached to the realm and could not return to Earth. Izzy was forced to either live out the rest of her days in the prison or live in Themyscira as an Amazon for eternity. She chose the latter and Veronica said goodbye to her daughter. Diana was briefly reunited with her mother, for the first time since she left the island.[8]

Artemis Wonder Woman #3 (February–March 1943) Artemis is the Goddess of the Moon, Hunting, Archery, Forest, and Animals, and the older twin sister to Apollo who is based on the goddess of the same name. Post-Crisis, she was one of Wonder Woman's patron goddesses. In the New 52, Artemis was more antagonistic, often teaming up with her brother to battle the amazon. Post-Rebirth, Artemis took the form of a deer and aided Wonder Woman with several other gods..
After the 2011 relaunch, Diana gained new powers. These new abilities, which included superhuman speed, durability, immortality, accelerated healing, and even flight came in addition to her previous attributed Olympian strength. She is now considered to be stronger than Hercules. In addition to her weaponry, Diana's bracelets can now create an thunderous explosion when she clashes them together. These new abilities are attributed to being the daughter of Hippolyta and Zeus. Her powers are now considered nearly unmeasurable if she goes without her Bracelets of Submission, which keep her powers in check. She uses these powers in battle against the goddess Artemis and quickly renders her unconscious with ease with a series of carefully positioned counterattacks. While using her godly strength, her outfit and accoutrements lit up and her eyes glowed like her father's.[185][189][better source needed][190]
We've already been warned that this outcome will lead to devastating consequences, first of which is the arrival of the Omega Titans, ancient cosmic forces that can hold entire planets in the palm of their hands. The coming of these giant new enemies has been greatly hyped by DC, and the Justice League's new fight to save the world begins in this week's Justice League: No Justice.
Gloria Steinem also liked the film, stating that she felt it made the "Amazon origin story clear; [Wonder Woman] was stopping war, not perpetuating it." Steinem also noted that she knew "some women were disappointed by all the makeup, but I may be desperate—I was just happy that the Amazons had wild hair!" Her only complaint lay in the choice to eliminate the World War II setting as the Wonder Woman comic book developed in response to existing comics that were "so sadistic and racist that there was a congressional hearing on the subject".[249] Steinem also gave Hillary Clinton the first Wonder Woman Award in October 2017 during the Women's Media Center's "Speaking Truth to Power Awards" (an organization created by Steinem, Jane Fonda, and Robin Morgan). Upon receiving the award, Clinton noted that she had seen Jenkins's Wonder Woman film and that she "loved the outfit". She also said that as her granddaughter was "really keen" on Wonder Woman, Clinton "thought maybe I could borrow something from her for the night. It didn't quite work for me, but I will say that this award means a lot to me because as a little girl, and then as a young woman, and then as a slightly older woman, I always wondered when Wonder Woman would have her time, and now that has happened."[250] Clinton had previously praised Jenkins's film, in a public August 2017 message, stating that "it was just as inspirational as I'd suspected a movie about a strong, powerful woman in a fight to save the world from international disaster would be."[251][252][253]
A Blackfoot demi-god,[52] and a smuggler who trades with both sides of the war and knows how to get people across the front lines.[48][53] On his casting, Brave Rock said, "I had no idea it was for Wonder Woman. I lost it when I showed up and I couldn't remember my lines. I didn't take it literally until a month later, I got a call saying I got the role and they wanted me to fly to London for a fitting."[54] Brave Rock raised several concerns with Jenkins over the representation of the character in the film, particularly that he was not comfortable playing into stereotypes and that he was not keen on his character being simply known as "Chief".[55] Jenkins responded by giving him some extra creative control over his character which Brave Rock says was "unprecedented".[55]
Superhuman Durability: The bones and muscles of Wonder Woman are much denser and harder than those of humans and Amazons, which makes her incredibly durable. Although she is not bulletproof, she can survive brute force trauma, falls from high altitudes, explosions and powerful bursts of energy, or come in contact with superhuman opponents such as Ares, Doomsday, Steppenwolf and Superman. While training with the other Amazons, Wonder Woman was not affected by the attacks of the latter, not even by the attacks of strong Amazons like Antiope and Artemis, as well as by resisting the blows of the improved Erich Ludendorff without any damage. Wonder Woman's durability allowed her to withstand Ares's blows, despite the considerably greater strength of the God of War, as well as a direct hit from a sword built by Ares, an explosion of lightning that blew it away and left her somewhat dazed, and even a tremendous explosion that left her dazed and almost deaf for a few minutes and still was able to get up to fight again against her half brother. After reaching her full potential as a demigoddess, the Wonder Woman became considerably more durable, enough to withstand the huge blows of the Doomsday monster, with a blow sending her flying several meters and leaving her completely unharmed. It was also able to withstand the lightning, thermal vision and waves of electrical discharges of Doomsday, wrapped by the thick thermal beam without suffering any damage. In the same way, Wonder Woman came out completely unscathed and without a scratch from her fierce battles with Steppenwolf and Superman, even though Steppenwolf hit her constantly with her Electro Ax and Superman hit her with enough force to leave her dazed. While Wonder Woman may be affected by the considerable force of the powerful impacts, they only make her stumble and hit her briefly, leaving her unharmed, with Wonder Woman smiling even after receiving powerful blow from Doomsday that sent her flying, and quickly rose up to face the monster again with a renewed ferocity.

The Lasso of Truth, or Lasso of Hestia, was forged by Hephaestus from the golden girdle of Gaea.[183] The original form of the Lasso in the Golden Age was called the Magic Lasso of Aphrodite. It compels all beings who come into contact with it to tell the absolute truth and is virtually indestructible;[183] in Identity Crisis, Green Arrow mistakenly describes it as "the only lie detector designed by Zeus." The only times it has been broken were when Wonder Woman herself refused to accept the truth revealed by the lasso, such as when she confronted Rama Khan of Jarhanpur,[207] and by Bizarro in Matt Wagner's non-canonical Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity.[208] During the Golden Age, the original form of the Lasso had the power to force anyone caught to obey any command given them, even overriding the mind control of others; this was effective enough to defeat strong-willed beings like Captain Marvel.[209] Diana wields the Lasso with great precision and accuracy and can use it as a whip or noose.
Feminist icon Gloria Steinem, founder of Ms. magazine, was responsible for the return of Wonder Woman's original abilities. Offended that the most famous female superhero had been depowered into a boyfriend-obsessed damsel in distress, Steinem placed Wonder Woman (in costume) on the cover of the first issue of Ms. (1972) – Warner Communications, DC Comics' owner, was an investor – which also contained an appreciative essay about the character.[221] Wonder Woman's powers and traditional costume were restored in issue #204 (January–February 1973).[221]
In this new continuity, Wonder Woman's origin is significantly changed and she is no longer a clay figure brought to life by the magic of the gods. Instead, she is the natural-born daughter of Hippolyta and Zeus. The earlier origin story was revealed by Hippolyta to be a ruse thought up by the Amazons, to protect Diana from the wrath of Hera, who is known for hunting and killing several illegitimate offspring of Zeus.[62]
Preparing to get Zola back from Hades, Wonder Woman and her male companions sought out Eros in Italy. She hoped that he could lead them to Hephaestus, who might have been able to arm them appropriately for battle with the ruler of Hell. He lead them to Mount Etna, where the blacksmith agreed to arm them. As retribution for his aid, though, Hades sent a monster to kill them all, which had to be dispatched by Diana.[20] Afterwards, Hephaestus armed Diana with new weapons, insisting that she take Eros' guns of love with her to Hell.
Poseidon Flash Comics #9 (September 1940) Poseidon is the God of the Sea, Earthquakes, and Horses who is based on the god of the same name. Post-Crisis, Poseidon was most often seen as an ally to Wonder Woman, though he eventually sided with Zeus and Hades after Athena took over Mount Olympus. In New 52, Poseidon's Appearance is blue-skinned half Toad, half Octopus.
Athena immediately set Diana on a quest into Hades' realm to free the god Hermes. She descended beneath Doom's Doorway with Wonder Girl (Cassandra Sandsmark) and Ferdinand the Minotaur and was confronted by Zeus' alliance. Ironically, she might not have succeeded but for the machinations of her constant nemesis, Ares.[31] Ares acted as a double agent and gained Zeus' trust, but when the opportunity arose, he killed his uncle Hades and assumed control of the Underworld. Diana then used Hermes' caduceus to revive him. Back on Olympus, Zeus asked for Athena's forgiveness, which she granted. Athena then also restored Diana's sight, but bound it to her own.[32]
Additionally, Mayling Ng, Florence Kasumba, Madeleine Vall Beijner, Hayley Jane Warnes and Ann Wolfe portray Orana, Acantha, Egeria, Aella and Artemis, respectively, all of whom are Amazons.[60][61][62][63] James Cosmo appears as Douglas Haig, Steffan Rhodri appears as Darnell, and Dutch supermodel Doutzen Kroes portrays the Amazon Venelia.[62] Samantha Jo was cast as the Amazonian Euboea, and previously played the Kryptonian, Car-Vex, in Man of Steel.[64] Zack Snyder also makes a brief cameo appearance in the film as an unnamed soldier.[65]
Her level of super strength (as granted to her by Demeter) is comparable to that of the Earth itself (as this is where she derives her powers). She is on the same strength level with the strongest other DC’s characters including Superman and Captain Marvel. Thus, she is capable of lifting/carrying thousands of tons with minimal effort. It is generally accepted that she is a notch below Superman. Wonder Woman was even able to take on Powergirl in a hand to hand fight while trying to free her from mind-control. Wonder Woman and Captain Marvel were an even match when they fought. On one occasion she even used her massive strength to move the Earth (though this was under duress and aided by Superman and the Martian Manhunter.) With the launch of the new 52 Wonder Woman showed a new strength level while fighting a God, she removes her bracelets and goes into a "berzerker rage" of power, which originally allegorical to a person losing control to their destructive Ego. We then find out that Wonder Woman's bracelets are what protects her opponents from her intense power. Wonder Woman had a quick match with Supergirl where we found out that they are close in strength, Wonder Woman over powered Supergirl with her bracelets still on.
Voiced by Michelle Monaghan. Based on the story ''Justice League Origins'', where Darkseid invades earth, only to fail due to its heroes. Wonder Woman is first seen with Steve Trevor, where she is supposed to meet the president of the United States, but he isn't there. After the Mother Boxes opens up boomtubes, she defeats multiple soldiers of Apokolips, but flies to Air Force One to protect the president. After battling some opponents, she meets Superman, and from there they proceed to meet other heroes. The battle and Superman gets knocked out and is about to be made a soldier by Desaad but Batman manages to save him in time. Wonder Woman then proceeds to battle Darkseid along with the rest of the Justice League, and succsessfully sends him back throug a boomtube.

Principal photography on the film began on November 21, 2015,[119][120] under the working title Nightingale.[121][122] Among the film sets were Lower Halstow, Kent,[123] and Australia House[124] in England and the Sassi di Matera,[125] Castel del Monte[125] and Camerota[126] in Southern Italy. Matthew Jensen was the director of photography,[127] filming in the United Kingdom, France and Italy.[128] Production in London concluded on March 13, 2016.[129] On March 20, 2016, filming was underway in Italy. In late April, filming took place at the Louvre Museum in Paris, France, where a Wayne Enterprises truck was spotted alongside Gadot.[130] Principal photography finished on May 9, 2016.[131] Patty Jenkins and director of photography Matt Jensen said that the film's look was inspired by painter John Singer Sargent.[132] Reshoots took place in November 2016, while Gadot was five months pregnant. A green cloth was placed over her stomach to edit out her pregnancy during post-production.[133]
Pérez and Potter wrote Wonder Woman as a feminist character, and Pérez's research into Greek mythology provided Wonder Woman's world with depth and verisimilitude missing from her previous incarnation.[35][36] The incorporation of Greek gods and sharply characterized villains added a richness to Wonder Woman's Amazon heritage and set her apart from other DC heroes.[9]
In February 1941, Marston submitted a draft of his first script, explaining the “under-meaning” of Wonder Woman’s Amazonian origins in ancient Greece, where men had kept women in chains, until they broke free and escaped. “The NEW WOMEN thus freed and strengthened by supporting themselves (on Paradise Island) developed enormous physical and mental power.” His comic, he said, was meant to chronicle “a great movement now under way—the growth in the power of women.”
Princess Diana commands respect both as Wonder Woman and Diana Prince; her epithetical title – The Amazon Princess – illustrates the dichotomy of her character. She is a powerful, strong-willed character who does not back down from a fight or a challenge. Yet, she is a diplomat who strongly "favors the pen", and a lover of peace who would never seek to fight or escalate a conflict. She's simultaneously both the most fierce and most nurturing member of the Justice League; and her political connections as a United Nations Honorary Ambassador and the ambassador of a warrior nation makes her an invaluable addition to the team. With her powerful abilities, centuries of training and experience at handling threats that range from petty crime to threats that are of a magical or supernatural nature, Diana is capable of competing with nearly any hero or villain.

Zeus has made a woman called Zola pregnant. Hera, due to this, is furious. She sets out to kill Zola, but Hermes finds her first, only to find out that Zola does not want to come with Hermes. Zola opens the door, and an arrow is shot at her direction; Hermes pushes her away in time, and gives her a key, as assassins sent by Hera and it teleports to Wonder Woman’s apartment, because Hermes enlisted Wonder Woman to protect Zola. Zola gives Wonder Woman the key, and it teleports both Wonder Woman and Zola back to Zola’s house. After Zola finds out that she is pregnant with Zeus, it gets revealed that one of Zeus’ children is going to take his place, by Zeus’ own will. Wonder Woman takes Zola, along with Hermes, to Themiscyra where Diana explains to her Mother, Queen Hippolyta, why she took with herself Zola and Hermes to Themiscyra. Alongside all of this, Hippolyta tells Diana about her true origins; that her real father is Zeus. Diana’s reaction to this isn’t very well, so she decides to abandon Themiscyra. Hera is aware of the fact that Wonder Woman is Zeus’ daughter, and she arrives to Themiscyra, furiously. Wonder Woman realized she did a mistake by leaving her home, so she went back to Themiscyra where she sees that everyone has been turned into snakes by Hera, except for Hippolyta, she was turned into stone. Apollo arrives in a bar searching for War (Ares), and explains to him that Zeus doesn’t even exist from what he’s sources says. Apollo takes this as his chance to become the king of Olympus and the Gods.
With a new decade arriving, DC president Jenette Kahn ordered a revamp in Wonder Woman's appearance. Artist Milton Glaser, who also designed the "bullet" logo adopted by DC in 1977, created a stylized "WW" emblem that evoked and replaced the eagle in her bodice and debuted in 1982.[39] The emblem in turn was incorporated by studio letterer Todd Klein onto the monthly title's logo, which lasted for a year and a half before being replaced by a version from Glaser's studio.[40] With sales of the title continuing to decline in 1985 (despite an unpublished revamp that was solicited), the series was canceled and ended in issue #329 (February 1986) written by Gerry Conway, depicting Steve Trevor's marriage to Wonder Woman.

Upon their arrival, the Dark Gods waste no time in making their presence felt. Right off the bat, we see Cheetah snap out of her slumber in a daze of rage, swearing off Urzkartaga, the god she once worshiped and now hates. Unable to be contained or controlled, she lashes out at anyone who stands in her way, making them pay with their blood. As she does so, she warns that new, dark gods are coming, and she needs to purge her connection to Urzkartaga in order to face them.
While Diana stood admiring the replica, Bruce Wayne appeared. He proceeds to angrily confront her by grabbing Diana's arm and asking her about the information device that she had stolen. Bruce claims to see right through her "babe in the woods" act, saying that while Diana doesn't know him, he's met "a few women like [her]". Diana, however, calmly smiles and retorts that Bruce has never met any women like her. She then proceeds to tell Bruce that she was unable to obtain anything from Bruce's device, due to Lex Luthor's data having military-grade encryption. Diana explains her intention to re-obtain her photograph from Luthor, stating that she only borrowed Bruce's device, and has already returned it to him shortly beforehand (placing it into the glove compartment of his car), before calmly excusing herself and leaving.[5]
I remember when I read in the news that Wonder Woman had been cast and my heart sank ... I'm sure we wouldn't have made the same choice. And then I started paying attention to her, and watching her and looking at her and it was just unbelievable. Frankly, I think they did a better job than I could have because I don't know that I would have scoured the earth as hard to find her ... They were looking for all the same things I would have looked for—all the values that Wonder Woman stands for exuding from someone in an honest way, and boy did they find it ... She shares every quality with Wonder Woman and that's no joke. It's one of those rare things. You need someone who can appear to be Wonder Woman on screen ... Every once in a while, there's superhero casting that transcends, because that person is so authentic to the character that it becomes identified with them, like Lynda Carter or Christopher Reeve.
Following the 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths series, George Pérez, Len Wein, and Greg Potter rewrote the character's origin story, depicting Wonder Woman as an emissary and ambassador from Themyscira to Patriarch's World, charged with the mission of bringing peace to the outside world. Pérez incorporated a variety of deities and concepts from Greek mythology in Wonder Woman's stories and origin. His rendition of the character acted as the foundation for the modern Wonder Woman stories, as he expanded upon the widely accepted origin of Diana being birthed out of clay. The relaunch was a critical and commercial success.[41]
That hardly ended the controversy. In February 1943, Josette Frank, an expert on children’s literature, a leader of the Child Study Association and a member of Gaines’ advisory board, sent Gaines a letter, telling him that while she’d never been a fan of Wonder Woman, she felt she now had to speak out about its “sadistic bits showing women chained, tortured, etc.” She had a point. In episode after episode, Wonder Woman is chained, bound, gagged, lassoed, tied, fettered and manacled. “Great girdle of Aphrodite!” she cries at one point. “Am I tired of being tied up!”
To defend himself against critics, Gaines, in 1940, hired Marston as a consultant. “‘Doc’ Marston has long been an advocate of the right type of comic magazines,” he explained. Marston held three degrees from Harvard, including a PhD in psychology. He led what he called “an experimental life.” He’d been a lawyer, a scientist and a professor. He is generally credited with inventing the lie detector test: He was obsessed with uncovering other people’s secrets. He’d been a consulting psychologist for Universal Pictures. He’d written screenplays, a novel and dozens of magazine articles. Gaines had read about Marston in an article in Family Circle magazine. In the summer of 1940, Olive Richard, a staff writer for the magazine, visited Marston at his house in Rye, New York, to ask him for his expert opinion about comics.
It was later retconned by Gail Simone that Wonder Woman's outfit design had Amazonian roots. During a flashback in Vol. 3, Hippolyta is shown issuing orders to have a garment created for Diana, taking inspiration from the skies on the night Diana was born; a red hunter's moon and a field of stars against deep blue, and the eagle breastplate being a symbol of Athena's avian representations.[volume & issue needed]
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