Marston was a man of a thousand lives and a thousand lies. “Olive Richard” was the pen name of Olive Byrne, and she hadn’t gone to visit Marston—she lived with him. She was also the niece of Margaret Sanger, one of the most important feminists of the 20th century. In 1916, Sanger and her sister, Ethel Byrne, Olive Byrne’s mother, had opened the first birth-control clinic in the United States. They were both arrested for the illegal distribution of contraception. In jail in 1917, Ethel Byrne went on a hunger strike and nearly died.
The events of Crisis on Infinite Earths greatly changed and altered the history of the DC Universe. Wonder Woman's history and origin were considerably revamped by the event. Wonder Woman was now an emissary and ambassador from Themyscira (the new name for Paradise Island) to Patriarch's World, charged with the mission of bringing peace to the outside world. Various deities and concepts from Greek mythology were blended and incorporated into Wonder Woman's stories and origin. Diana was formed out of clay of the shores of Themyscira by Hippolyta, who wished for a child; the clay figure was then brought to life by the Greek deities. The Gods then blessed and granted her unique powers and abilities – beauty from Aphrodite, strength from Demeter, wisdom from Athena, speed and flight from Hermes, Eyes of the Hunter and unity with beasts from Artemis and sisterhood with fire and the ability to discern the truth from Hestia.[101] Due to the reboot, Diana's operating methods were made distinctive from Superman and Batman's with her willingness to use deadly force when she judges it necessary. In addition, her previous history and her marriage to Steve Trevor were erased. Trevor was introduced as a man much older than Diana who would later on marry Etta Candy.[102] Instead, Perez created Julia and Vanessa Kapatelis, a Greek-American scholar and her teenage daughter whom Diana would live with when she was in Man's world and would be major supporting characters in the series for years.
Wertham’s papers, housed at the Library of Congress, were only opened to researchers in 2010. They suggest that Wertham’s antipathy toward Bender had less to do with the content of the comics than with professional rivalry. (Paul Schilder, Bender’s late husband, had been Wertham’s boss for many years.) Wertham’s papers contain a scrap on which he compiled a list he titled “Paid Experts of the Comic Book Industry Posing as Independent Scholars.” First on the list as the comic book industry’s number one lackey was Bender, about whom Wertham wrote: “Boasted privately of bringing up her 3 children on money from crime comic books.”
Later, as a healer tended to Diana's battle wounds, she noted with confusion that Diana's wounds had healed completely. Diana then visited Trevor in his cell, asking him about the outside world. Due to his words, Diana decided to sneak him off the island and confront Ares herself. She snuck into the island's tower and stole the god killer, along with an Amazon shield, the Lasso of Hestia, and a special set of battle armor. She broke Trevor out of his cell and took him to the island's dock, where she was intercepted by her mother. To her surprise, Hippolyta allowed Diana to leave, gifting her Antiope's tiara. She then warned Diana to be careful, mournfully telling her that the world of men did not deserve her.
The Justice League uses Flying Fox to Russia to stop Steppenwolf from being the Mother Boxes together, the team plan how there going to stop Steppenwolf, Batman tells the team that he going to take out the tower while the reason of the League will separate the Mother Boxes. Batman destroys the tower, but the controls on the Flying Fox also didn't reporting, which caused it to crash, but Bruce got in the Batmobile and used a siren to get the attention of the Parademons, this allows the rest to get to the Mother Boxes without any problems.
Wonder Woman, while in her guise as the human Diana Prince, is an extremely experienced genius antiquities dealer, with Diana's tremendously long immortal life and natural fluency in all human languages allowing her to accumulate an immense amount of knowledge on the subject, though (being an Amazon with Old God heritage) she seems to specialize most in ancient Greco-Roman antiques. Hence, Diana works as Curator for the Department of Antiquities[6] at the extremely prestigious Louvre Museum in France, and she is held in very high esteem by the curator of the Gotham City Museum of Antiquities. She was swiftly able to tell that the museum's exhibit of Alexander the Great's sword was a fake, knowing exactly where the actual sword was and impressing Batman himself.
A new pantheon of gods has been born! But who are they? Where did they come from? What do they want? All questions for Wonder Woman, because she played more of a role in their arrival than you’d think! Will it fall to Diana to end their existence as well? Meanwhile, Wonder Woman’s brother Jason learns his true purpose. It’s all here in this extra-sized anniversary issue!
Poseidon Flash Comics #9 (September 1940) Poseidon is the God of the Sea, Earthquakes, and Horses who is based on the god of the same name. Post-Crisis, Poseidon was most often seen as an ally to Wonder Woman, though he eventually sided with Zeus and Hades after Athena took over Mount Olympus. In New 52, Poseidon's Appearance is blue-skinned half Toad, half Octopus.
The New 52 version of Earth 2 was introduced in Earth 2 #1 (2012). In that issue, the Earth 2 Wonder Woman is introduced via flashback. She, along with Superman and Batman, are depicted dying in battle with forces from Apokolips five years in the past.[158] This Wonder Woman worshiped the deities of Roman mythology as opposed to the Greek; the Roman gods perish as a result of the conflict. An earlier version of the Earth-2 Wonder Woman, prior to the Apokoliptian invasion, is seen in the comic book Batman/Superman, where she is seen riding a pegasus.
^ "Superhero Makeovers: Wonder Woman, part two". The Screamsheet. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2011. Desperate to save her daughter, she claimed that Diana had failed in her role as an ambassador to Man's World and called for a do-over on the contest that had determined Diana fit to carry the Wonder Woman mantle in the first place.
Wonder Woman, Hermes and Zola is at a café where a guy called Lennox, who knew that Zola is pregnant with Zeus and who Wonder Woman and Hermes really is arrived there, and tells to Wonder Woman that he is Diana’s brother. He tells to Diana that she has to be at the London Bridge at six, or she’d regret it. She’s there at six, and Poseidon arrives, and tells Diana that he wants to be the new god of the gods, whereas Lennox goes into a cave shown to him by Hermes, and there he meets Hades who also wants to claim the throne of the Heavens. After Hera arrives, Wonder Woman tricks all of them, and Hades goes back into his cave, and tricks Zola to come to him and kidnap her, he told Diana that they struck a bargain, and when she has fulfilled her’s, she shall get Zola back.
^ Lyons, Charles. "Suffering Sappho! A Look at the Creator & Creation of Wonder Woman". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2006. Maxwell Charles Gaines, then publisher of All-American Comics, saw the interview and offered Marston a job as an educational consultant to All-American and sister company DC Comics.
That hardly ended the controversy. In February 1943, Josette Frank, an expert on children’s literature, a leader of the Child Study Association and a member of Gaines’ advisory board, sent Gaines a letter, telling him that while she’d never been a fan of Wonder Woman, she felt she now had to speak out about its “sadistic bits showing women chained, tortured, etc.” She had a point. In episode after episode, Wonder Woman is chained, bound, gagged, lassoed, tied, fettered and manacled. “Great girdle of Aphrodite!” she cries at one point. “Am I tired of being tied up!”
Even alongside all of her kindness, compassion, and empathy, Diana is still also a warrior at heart, and when someone she cares about is hurt, becomes far more relentless and ruthless. When seemingly beaten by Ares (who was only growing more powerful from her violence, rage, and hatred), and after having to watch her beloved Steve Trevor die, she flew into an agonizing rage, and she assaulted and brutalized several armed German soldiers with immense speed and ferocity. She even came close to murdering Dr. Poison as vengeance for Steve's death; but after recalling Steve's great love for an undying belief in her and her beliefs, restrained herself and refocused her energies on Ares, harnessing her love for Trevor to overcome her violent emotions and swiftly overpower an angered Ares. Additionally, she resolved to fight even harder after Steppenwolf revealed that he had killed several other Amazons. Outside of battle, however, Diana can also react indigently and negatively towards people who disrespect her, her relatives, or those she cares about. Two such notable instances were when she shot an angry look at Lex Luthor (after he insulted her father Zeus's memory), and when she shoved back Batman (after he had insulted her beloved Steve Trevor's memory). Diana also remains ruthless when facing enemies in battle as Wonder Woman, and she even shows signs of enjoying a good battle when they put up a good fight. This was seen when she briefly smiled and laughed when she was beaten to the ground by Doomsday, and smirked as she stopped the first bullet fired at a group of hostages in London.
A day before Whedon's departure from Wonder Woman, Warner Bros. and Silver Pictures purchased a spec script for the film written by Matthew Jennison and Brent Strickland. Set during World War II, the script impressed executives at Silver Pictures.[77] However, Silver stated that he had purchased the script because he did not want the rights reverting; while stating the script had good ideas, Silver did not want the film to be a period piece.[81] By April 2008, Silver hired Jennison and Strickland to write a new script set in contemporary times that would not depict Wonder Woman's origin, but explore Paradise Island's history.[82]
As Hippolyta was still a clay statue, Diana was forced to take the Amazon throne, at least until she could find a way to turn her mother back to normal. At the same time, the Justice League had discovered strange environmental events that had destroyed small villages around the world, leaving only vegetation behind. Furious, Wonder Woman attacked Swamp Thing, accusing him of causing such devastation, while Swamp Thing claimed innocence. Aquaman defused the situation before it could escalate any further. Later, Wonder Woman returned to Themyscira, only to discover Hippolyta's statue had crumbled.[50] On a training session, Clark asked Diana if she wanted to talk about her recent experiences, but Diana replied that, as queen, grief is not a luxury she could afford. Later, Diana was called for a meeting by the Amazon council, which forced a choice on her: become permanent Queen or abdicate the throne. Before the discussion could continue, the island was attacked by Stymphalian Birds, Ares’ pets who were now drawn to Diana as the God of War. Accepting her new responsibilities, Diana successfully defended Themyscira.[51]
At the end of the 1960s, under the guidance of Mike Sekowsky, Wonder Woman surrendered her powers in order to remain in Man's World rather than accompany her fellow Amazons to another dimension. Wonder Woman begins using the alias Diana Prince and opens a mod boutique. She acquires a Chinese mentor named I Ching, who teaches Diana martial arts and weapons skills. Using her fighting skill instead of her powers, Diana engaged in adventures that encompassed a variety of genres, from espionage to mythology.[35][36] This phase of her story was directly influenced by the British spy thriller The Avengers and Diana Rigg's portrayal of Emma Peel.[37]

Diana quickly regained her sanity and was taken out of the mental hospital's care. She immediately noted the absence of Barbara and set out to locate her. However, when she arrived at Empire Enterprises, she was greeted only by Doctor Cyber.[81] Cale set Team Poison onto Wonder Woman once again, and Colonel Poison managed to shoot Diana through the chest. Diana and Steve quickly overcame their forces and followed Veronica Cale and Cheetah to a gateway that led to Themyscira. Wonder Woman and Cheetah fought, and a drop of Diana's blood fell onto the gateway which opened the portal to Ares' prison beneath Themyscira. Phobos and Deimos, whom Cale had turned into dogs with the help of Circe, entered the portal, along with Diana and Veronica Cale. Veronica found her daughter beside Ares.[82]
Diana then arrives to stop Ares, and brings Steve Trevor to the US.Arriving in Boston, she meets Professor Julia Kapatelis. After fighting a monster named Decay sent by Phobos, a son of Ares, Diana, Julia and Steve discover Ares' plan: to start a nuclear war worldwide. Joined by Steve's friend Michaelis, the group travel to the military bases Ares' minions had taken control of and avert nuclear war. Ares

Superhuman Durability: The bones and muscles of Wonder Woman are much denser and harder than those of humans and Amazons, which makes her incredibly durable. Although she is not bulletproof, she can survive brute force trauma, falls from high altitudes, explosions and powerful bursts of energy, or come in contact with superhuman opponents such as Ares, Doomsday, Steppenwolf and Superman. While training with the other Amazons, Wonder Woman was not affected by the attacks of the latter, not even by the attacks of strong Amazons like Antiope and Artemis, as well as by resisting the blows of the improved Erich Ludendorff without any damage. Wonder Woman's durability allowed her to withstand Ares's blows, despite the considerably greater strength of the God of War, as well as a direct hit from a sword built by Ares, an explosion of lightning that blew it away and left her somewhat dazed, and even a tremendous explosion that left her dazed and almost deaf for a few minutes and still was able to get up to fight again against her half brother. After reaching her full potential as a demigoddess, the Wonder Woman became considerably more durable, enough to withstand the huge blows of the Doomsday monster, with a blow sending her flying several meters and leaving her completely unharmed. It was also able to withstand the lightning, thermal vision and waves of electrical discharges of Doomsday, wrapped by the thick thermal beam without suffering any damage. In the same way, Wonder Woman came out completely unscathed and without a scratch from her fierce battles with Steppenwolf and Superman, even though Steppenwolf hit her constantly with her Electro Ax and Superman hit her with enough force to leave her dazed. While Wonder Woman may be affected by the considerable force of the powerful impacts, they only make her stumble and hit her briefly, leaving her unharmed, with Wonder Woman smiling even after receiving powerful blow from Doomsday that sent her flying, and quickly rose up to face the monster again with a renewed ferocity.
Princess Diana commands respect both as Wonder Woman and Diana Prince; her epithetical title – The Amazon Princess – illustrates the dichotomy of her character. She is a powerful, strong-willed character who does not back down from a fight or a challenge. Yet, she is a diplomat who strongly "favors the pen", and a lover of peace who would never seek to fight or escalate a conflict. She's simultaneously both the most fierce and most nurturing member of the Justice League; and her political connections as a United Nations Honorary Ambassador and the ambassador of a warrior nation makes her an invaluable addition to the team. With her powerful abilities, centuries of training and experience at handling threats that range from petty crime to threats that are of a magical or supernatural nature, Diana is capable of competing with nearly any hero or villain.
Gods and Mortals (1987) Challenge of the Gods (1987–88) War of the Gods (1991) The Contest (1994) The Challenge of Artemis (1995) Paradise Island Lost (2001) Our Worlds at War (2001) The Hiketeia (2002) Down to Earth (2003–04) Who Is Wonder Woman? (2006–07) Amazons Attack! (2007) The Circle (2008) Ends of the Earth (2008) Rise of the Olympian (2009) Flashpoint (2011) The Lies (2016) Year One (2016) The Truth (2017) Godwatch (2017)
Wonder Woman’s powers are a result of the blessings she received from the gods (or presumably in the modern version by her divine ancestry), but originally came from her "brain energy" training. Her abilities in large part come from her upbringing in the martial society of the Amazons. She is one of the most powerful superheroes in the DC universe.
Considering Bruce's offer, Diana meanwhile returns to her job as Curator for the Department of Antiquities[6] at the Louvre Museum. Bruce sends Diana a package, which contains the original, physical photograph of herself with the Wonder Men. This causes her to reminisce about her childhood, naive idealism, and all of the ensuing events of World War I. She sends a thankful e-mail. Diana then dons her Wonder Woman armor after hearing a disturbance in the distance of Paris by sailing off the roof of the museum at sunset in Paris to confront it.[3]
Wonder Woman's origin story relates that she was sculpted from clay by her mother Queen Hippolyta and was given a life to live as an Amazon, along with superhuman powers as gifts by the Greek gods. In recent years, DC changed her background with the retcon that she is the daughter of Zeus and Hippolyta, jointly raised by her mother and her aunts Antiope and Menalippe. The character has changed in depiction over the decades, including briefly losing her powers entirely in the late 1960s; by the 1980s, artist George Perez gave her an atheltic look and emphasized her Amazonian heritage.[11][12] She possesses an arsenal of advanced technology, including the Lasso of Truth, a pair of indestructible bracelets, a tiara which serves as a projectile, and, in older stories, a range of devices based on Amazon technology.
Membership Air Wave • Amazing Man • Atom Smasher • Batman • Black Adam • Captain Marvel • Citizen Steel • Cyclone • Damage • Darknight • Hawkgirl • Hippolyta • Huntress • Jakeem Thunder • Johnny Thunder • Judomaster • King Chimera • Liberty Belle • Lightning • Magog • Miss America • Mister America • Obsidian • Power Girl • Red Beetle • Red Tornado • Ri • Robin • Sand • Stargirl • Star-Spangled Kid • S.T.R.I.P.E. • Thunderbolt • Tomcat • Superman • Wonder Woman

Considering Bruce's offer, Diana meanwhile returns to her job as Curator for the Department of Antiquities[6] at the Louvre Museum. Bruce sends Diana a package, which contains the original, physical photograph of herself with the Wonder Men. This causes her to reminisce about her childhood, naive idealism, and all of the ensuing events of World War I. She sends a thankful e-mail. Diana then dons her Wonder Woman armor after hearing a disturbance in the distance of Paris by sailing off the roof of the museum at sunset in Paris to confront it.[3]
After Sekowsky's run ended in the early 1970s, Diana's roots were reverted to her old mythological ones and she wore a more modernized version of her original outfit, a predecessor to her "bathing suit" outfit.[194] Later, in 1976, her glowing white belt was turned into a yellow one.[194] For Series 3, artist Terry Dodson redrew her outfit as a strapless swimsuit.[195]
Immortality: Wonder Woman, due to being an Amazon, has lived for millennia without visibly aging, with her being roughly 5000 years old (having been born right after the War of the Gods), and having been present in the "Man's World" since World War I. She is thus the oldest member of the Justice League by far (though still roughly a millenia younger than Enchantress, and even more so than Ares and Steppenwolf), making her an ageless immortal, much like Superman.
^ Cronin, Brian (April 1, 2010). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #254". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 13, 2011. Retrieved November 6, 2011. Gerber and Frank Miller pitched DC on revamps of the “Trinity.” The three titles would be called by the “line name” of METROPOLIS, with each character being defined by one word/phrase… AMAZON (written by Gerber); DARK KNIGHT (written by Miller); and Something for Superman – I believe either MAN OF STEEL or THE MAN OF STEEL, but I’m not sure about that (written by both men).
Marston introduced the idea to Gaines. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, whom he believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman. Marston also drew inspiration from the bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship.[22] Wonder Woman debuted in All Star Comics #8 (cover date Dec/Jan 1941/1942, released in October 1941),[23] scripted by Marston.
After saving Zola from Hades, Wonder Woman tries to protect her further from Apollo, as it is prophesied that one of Zeus' children will be his downfall whom Apollo considers to be Zola's child.[144][145] Wonder Woman receives the power of flight by one of Hermes' feathers piercing her thigh and Zola's baby is stolen by Hermes at the end and given to Demeter. The issue's last page shows a dark and mysterious man rising from the snow, taking a helmet and disappearing.[146][147] This man is later revealed to be Zeus' first son, known only as First Born, who seeks to rule over Olympus and the rest of the world, and take Diana as his bride.[volume & issue needed]
In the preview in DC Comics Presents #41 (January 1982), writer Roy Thomas and penciler Gene Colan provided Wonder Woman with a stylized "WW" emblem on her bodice, replacing the traditional eagle.[17] The "WW" emblem, unlike the eagle, could be protected as a trademark and therefore had greater merchandising potential. Wonder Woman #288 (February 1982) premiered the new costume and an altered cover banner incorporating the "WW" emblem.[18] The new emblem was the creation of Milton Glaser, who also designed the "bullet" logo adopted by DC in 1977, and the cover banner was originally made by studio letterer Todd Klein, which lasted for a year and a half before being replaced by a version from Glaser's studio.[19][20] Dann Thomas co-wrote Wonder Woman #300 (Feb. 1983)[21][22] and, as Roy Thomas noted in 1999 "became the first woman ever to receive scripting credit on the world's foremost super-heroine."[23]
Wonder Woman received a largely positive response from film critics, with some calling it the DC Extended Universe's best film, with additional praise highlighting Jenkins's direction, acting, chemistry of Gadot and Pine, musical score, and action sequences.[8][203] On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 93% based on 425 reviews, with an average rating of 7.66/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Thrilling, earnest, and buoyed by Gal Gadot's charismatic performance, Wonder Woman succeeds in spectacular fashion."[204] It is the second highest-rated superhero film on the site.[10][note 1] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 76 out of 100, based on 50 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[205] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale, while PostTrak reported filmgoers gave it an 85% overall positive score and a 73% "definite recommend".[206]

Despite helping win the war, defeating Ares and still loving humanity, Diana is still left sobered, emotionally broken, psychologically scarred, and devastated over not having been able to save the Belgian village from Dr. Poison, as well as over her beloved Steve Trevor's self-sacrificing death. Indeed, Diana would later claim that she "would never be the same" ever again after World War I. Moreover, in the years that followed, Diana bore witness to a "century of horrors" (Wars, Fascism, Communism, nuclear weapons' deployment, geopolitical brinkmanship, racism, homophobia, genocides, war crimes, propaganda, and etc.), and due to all of this occurring without Ares being there to spread corruption, Diana almost completely lost faith in humanity, coming to believe that humans "made a world where standing together is impossible".[4] As such, Diana resolved to mostly abandon superheroism for 100 years.[5]
Although they do not appear in Justice League: War, the Olympian Gods are briefly mentioned by Wonder Woman during a conversation with Superman about the other five heroes, referencing Batman as Hades (who is just as dark and mysterious just as Maxie Zeus did in the "Fire From Olympus" episode of Batman: The Animated Series), Green Lantern as Apollo (the God of Light), Flash as Hermes (the Messenger of Olympus and God of Speed), Cyborg as Hephaestus (the Blacksmith of Olympus and God of Metal) and Shazam as Zeus (God of Lightning).
Straczynski's run focused on an alternate timeline created by the Gods where Paradise Island was destroyed leading to many Amazons being raised in the outside world. It revolves around Wonder Woman's attempts to restore the normal timeline despite the fact that she does not remember it properly. Wonder Woman in this alternative timeline has been raised in New York City as an orphan and is coming into her powers. She is aware of the presence of Amazons, but does not remember her childhood on Paradise Island.[54][55] Wonder Woman wore a new costume designed by DC Comics co-publisher Jim Lee.[56] Writer Phil Hester continued the storyline.[57]
The Golden, Silver, and Bronze Age portrayals of Wonder Woman showed her using a silent and invisible plane that could be controlled by mental command[211] and fly at speeds up to 3,000 mph (4,800 km/h).[212] Its appearance has varied over time; originally it had a propeller, while later it was drawn as a jet aircraft resembling a stealth aircraft.[213]
Writer Eric Luke next joined the comic and depicted Diana as often questioning her mission in Man's World, and most primarily her reason for existing. His most memorable contributions to the title was having Diana separate herself from humanity by residing in a floating palace called the Wonder Dome, and for a godly battle between the Titan Cronus and the various religious pantheons of the world. Phil Jimenez, worked on the title beginning with issue #164 (January 2001),[42] and produced a run which has been likened to Pérez's, particularly since his art bears a resemblance to Pérez's. Jimenez's run showed Wonder Woman as a diplomat, scientist, and activist who worked to help women across the globe become more self-sufficient. Jimenez also added many visual elements found in the Wonder Woman television series. One of Jimenez's story arcs is "The Witch and the Warrior", in which Circe turns New York City's men into beasts, women against men, and lovers against lovers.[43][44][45]
Diana, Trevor, Sameer, and Charlie sat at a table together as Trevor proposed his plan to them. Sameer and Charlie were willing to join them, if they were paid for the job. Trevor, however, had no money. The two refused the job. Sameer told Diana that all the payment he needed was a photograph of her; Diana countered that he wouldn't need one, as she was going with them. He and Charlie were baffled by her response.
She is able to astrally project herself into various lands of myth. Her physical body reacts to whatever happens to her on the mythical astral plane, leaving her body cut, bruised, or sometimes strengthened once her mind and body are reunited. She can apparently leave the planet through meditation and did this once to rescue Artemis while she was in Hell.[188]

In the New 52, the night when she turned 8, Ares appeared before Diana and offered to train her above and beyond the abilities of the Amazons, having seen her potential to eventually become his replacement as the God of War. Though the training was one for one night each month, the year was noticed with Diana improving tremendously compared to the other Amazons.

“Of course I wouldn’t expect Miss Roubicek to understand all this,” Marston wrote Gaines. “After all I have devoted my entire life to working out psychological principles. Miss R. has been in comics only 6 months or so, hasn’t she? And never in psychology.” But “the secret of woman’s allure,” he told Gaines, is that “women enjoy submission—being bound.”
Gaines decided he needed another expert. He turned to Lauretta Bender, an associate professor of psychiatry at New York University’s medical school and a senior psychiatrist at Bellevue Hospital, where she was director of the children’s ward, an expert on aggression. She’d long been interested in comics but her interest had grown in 1940, after her husband, Paul Schilder, was killed by a car while walking home from visiting Bender and their 8-day-old daughter in the hospital. Bender, left with three children under the age of 3, soon became painfully interested in studying how children cope with trauma. In 1940, she conducted a study with Reginald Lourie, a medical resident under her supervision, investigating the effect of comics on four children brought to Bellevue Hospital for behavioral problems. Tessie, 12, had witnessed her father, a convicted murderer, kill himself. She insisted on calling herself Shiera, after a comic-book girl who is always rescued at the last minute by the Flash. Kenneth, 11, had been raped. He was frantic unless medicated or “wearing a Superman cape.” He felt safe in it—he could fly away if he wanted to—and “he felt that the cape protected him from an assault.” Bender and Lourie concluded the comic books were “the folklore of this age,” and worked, culturally, the same way fables and fairy tales did.
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